Cashew Nut Shell (CNS) is a waste generated in the production of edible cashew nut. For the 2017 the predicted cashew nuts crop yield is 3 million tons; resulting to 2 million tons of CNS waste. CNS contains circa 30-35% brown viscous liquid, called Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL), this is a natural resin containing valuable components, for example, cardanol, cardol and anacardic acid. Especially, cardonal and its derivatives have several industrial uses as biobased additives, polymeric building blocks, and biodiesel. At the Centre of Expertise Biobased Economy, we are looking into the possibilities of Preparation of novel, recyclable cardanol based epoxy thermosets.

Prepare and characterize cardanol based epoxy networks cured with several hardeners and study their recyclability.

Project activities

✓ Screening of epoxidized cardanols and hardeners on DSC analysis of the polymerization reactions. Curing temperature and the polymerization kinetics will be determined.
✓ Based on screening results, the epoxidized cardanol and the hardener will react on a bigger scale (10-100 g). Properties of the thermosets will be characterized using TGA and DSC.
✓ Test the recyclability: the cross-linked samples will be fragmentized, and then placed inside a mold to perform the recycling tests by hot pressing. The mechanical properties of the virgin and recycled epoxy networks will be compared (tensile tests, flexural tests, impact tests).

Related Information
1. Lomonaco, Diego, Giuseppe Mele, and Selma E. Mazzetto. “Cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL): from an agro-industrial waste to a sustainable alternative to petrochemical resources.” Cashew Nut Shell Liquid. Springer International Publishing, 2017. 19-38.
2. Podgórski, M., et al., Toward Stimuli‐Responsive Dynamic Thermosets through Continuous Development and Improvements in Covalent Adaptable Networks (CANs). Advanced Materials, 2020. 32(20): p. 1906876.
3. Taplan, C., M. Guerre, and F.E. Du Prez, Covalent Adaptable Networks Using β-Amino Esters as Thermally Reversible Building Blocks. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2021.

Starting date
February 2024. The length of the assignment is 5 months. The student who will execute the assignment gets a fee of €350,- per month.
Desirable skills/qualities of the student
The student should be able to carry out independent laboratory research. The preferred background is polymer chemistry.


Contact person concerning this assignment : Qian Zhou
Phone : +316 10224446
E-mail :

Bij het gebruik van deze website gaat u akkoord met het gebruik van cookies. Meer informatie

The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.